Tens of thousands of protesters poured into Warsaw's streets on Wednesday for a demonstration organised by the far right, marching under the slogan "Poland for the Polish" and burning an EU flag.
Police said 25,000 people joined the march, which marked the anniversary of Poland's return to independence after the First World War, while organisers put the numbers at 50,000.
"God, honour, homeland," chanted the protesters as they marched under a sea of red-and-white Polish flags.
Demonstrators trampled and burned a European Union flag at one point, while a banner added to the anti-EU theme with the slogan "EU macht frei" ("Work makes you free" in German), a reference to the slogan over the gates at Auschwitz.
"Yesterday it was Moscow, today it's Brussels which takes away our freedom," chanted one group of protesters.